Ankle foot orthosis (AFO)
07.10 | Author: Nugroho nugie

What is an AFO?
AFO stands for ankle foot orthosis. This kind of brace is usually made of plastic. Orthoses are named for the parts of the body they control. An orthosis provides correction, support, or protection to a part of the body.
How do I get used to my new orthosis?
A new orthosis must be broken in slowly
When first wearing your new orthosis, start a little at a time.
• Begin with 2 hours on and one (1) hour off.
• During the next 2 or 3 days, gradually increase the time the orthosis is used until it is being worn for the amount of time that your orthotist or therapist prescribed.
How do I wear my orthosis?
• Always wear a sock or stocking under the orthosis. It helps to reduce friction and decreases irritation of your skin from sweat.
• The sock you wear should be taller than the orthosis. You may even choose to wear a knee-high sock for more comfort.
• Cotton socks allow air to circulate better and absorb sweat. For more comfort, use talcum powder and change your sock after sweating.
• Inspect your socks to ensure they are wrinkle free.
• Be sure that the straps on your orthosis are snug and your heel is completely back in the orthosis to ensure a proper fit.
• Shoes worn with your orthosis should have good support and the correct heel height for which your orthosis was designed. Ask your orthotist or therapist which shoes are best for your orthosis.
• Do not wear your orthosis barefooted or with slippers, sandals, loafers or any shoe without a back.
This document is not intended to take the place of the care and attention of your personal physician or other professional medical services. Our
aim is to promote active participation in your care and treatment by providing information and education. Questions about individual health
concerns or specific treatment options should be discussed with your physician.
Copyright © 2004 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Page 1 of 3
02/04
Ankle foot orthosis (AFO)
How do I care for my orthosis?
Since your orthosis will be worn for long periods of time, it may become very dirty. The following tips will help you keep it clean:
• Clean your orthosis frequently inside and out with a damp cloth. Let it dry fully before you put it back on.
• Use a towel or let your orthosis dry at room temperature. Do not place your orthosis in front of a heater. Do not use a hair dryer for drying, or leave it in the sun or a hot car.
• A solution of one (1) tablespoon of unscented bleach in a gallon of water can be used to clean your orthosis.
• Velcro can be kept clean with soap and water and can be kept free of lint and hair with a wire brush, toothbrush, or fine-toothed comb.
• Metal joints should be lubricated occasionally with silicon spray or a light oil such as WD40® or 3-in-1 Oil®.
How do I care for my skin?
• Any part of the body covered by the orthosis should be washed daily with warm water and mild soap.
• Be sure to clean the bottoms of your feet and between your toes to eliminate bacteria and dirt collection.
• Your body should be completely dry before wearing your orthosis.
• Remember to keep socks clean, dry and wrinkle-free. Inspect skin daily.
Why do I need to examine my skin?
• It should become a habit to inspect your skin daily. People with decreased sense of touch are not as likely to notice that their skin is irritated. Irritation is especially common in bony areas such as the shin or sides of the feet. Even minor irritations should be treated.
• An orthosis should provide steady pressure, not sharp pain. Inspect your skin daily for bruises, calluses, or blisters.
• A new orthosis may cause redness, but this should disappear within 15 minutes once the orthotic is removed.
• Swelling may occur after prolonged standing or during hot, humid weather. If this occurs, you should remove the orthosis, sit or lie down, and elevate your leg above your heart until the swelling subsides.
This document is not intended to take the place of the care and attention of your personal physician or other professional medical services. Our
aim is to promote active participation in your care and treatment by providing information and education. Questions about individual health
concerns or specific treatment options should be discussed with your physician.
Copyright © 2004 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Page 2 of 3
02/04
Ankle foot orthosis (AFO)
This document is not intended to take the place of the care and attention of your personal physician or other professional medical services. Our
aim is to promote active participation in your care and treatment by providing information and education. Questions about individual health
concerns or specific treatment options should be discussed with your physician.
Copyright © 2004 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Page 3 of 3
02/04
Safety is important!
For your safety, it is important to quickly inspect the orthosis every day.
• Check rivets and screws for tightness.
• Check plastic and metal uprights for cracks.
• Check straps and buckles for proper fit.
• With daytime foot and leg orthoses, shoes should be worn at all times because the footplate is slippery and can cause a trip on uneven surfaces.
Questions?
If you have more questions about your ankle foot orthosis (AFO), call Rehabilitation Services at 495-3621. If you are inside the hospital, dial 3621. If you are outside the Memphis area, call toll-free 1-866-2ST-JUDE (1-866-278-5833), extension 3621.

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Lower Extremity Orthoses (Orthotics)
07.01 | Author: Nugroho nugie
Lower Extremity Orthoses (Orthotics)
Page 1 of 2
This TelAbility handout provides an overview of orthoses (orthotics), including definitions, why they are used, and what they do.
WHAT IS AN ORTHOSIS?
An Orthosis is commonly called an “orthotic” or sometimes a “brace”. Orthoses come in a variety of materials and features specifically selected for each child’s needs. “Orthoses” is plural for “Orthosis”. Splints are considered to be a more temporary form of orthosis.
TYPES OF ORTHOSES?
An Orthosis is named according to the joints

of the leg that are covered by the orthosis.
o AFO – Ankle- Foot Orthosis – Covers the foot and ankle and extends partway up the calf.
o KAFO – Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis – Covers the foot, ankle and knee and extends part way up the thigh.
o HKAFO – Hip –Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis – Covers the foot, ankle, knee and hip and includes the pelvis.
o SMO – SupraMalleolar Orthosis – Similar to the AFO but come just above the ankle bone (the malleolus).
o Shoe insert – fits inside the shoe and controls the position of the foot.
Orthoses are also named by some of the following features:
o Solid/Fixed – Designed to hold the joint in a fixed position (i.e., A solid ankle AFO does not allow motion at the ankle joint.)
o Hinged/Articulated – the orthosis has a hinge that allows a limited amount of motion. (i.e., A hinged AFO allows limited up and down motion of the ankle)
o Dynamic – the material the orthosis is made of has some flexibility that allows limited motion at the joint.
o Contoured – usually refers to special shaping of the foot plate that encourages desired movement of the foot.
o Floor reaction – specially designed to limit a crouched gait (walking with knees bent in the crouched position)
HOW ARE ORTHOSES MADE?
Orthoses are usually fabricated or made from molded plastics but may also include parts that are metal, leather or Velcro. Splints may be made from plastics, athletic tape, webbing or ace wrap. Sometimes a mold or impression is made with a plaster cast to insure an exact fit with the leg in the desired position. Some plastics become soft when heated and can be molded to fit the leg. The sides of the orthotic are trimmed to fit
http://www.TelAbility.org
Lower Extremity Orthoses (Orthotics)
Page 2 of 2
exactly over the desired bony landmarks and smoothed to prevent irritation. An exact fit is essential to the success of any orthosis. Most orthoses are worn inside the shoe.
Orthoses should be made by an orthotist or physical therapist with experience in orthotic fabication. Sometimes the therapist will make a plaster mold to send to the orthotist to use in making the orthosis. Often the therapist will try a more temporary “splint” to determine if the orthosis is likely to benefit the child.
WHAT DOES AN ORTHOSIS DO?
An Orthosis can be used to provide needed stability around a joint or to encourage desired movement and discourage or limit undesired movement at a joint. For example and AFO might be designed to allow bending of the ankle to lift the toes off the floor when walking but limit straightening of the ankle to point the toes into the ground. An AFO might also provide stability by limiting sideways motion of the ankle for a child with weak muscles.
ORTHOTIC PRESCRIPTION
A physical therapist or physician may prescribe an orthosis for a child. Several questions should be answered in determining if an orthosis is right for the child.
1. Will the orthosis allow the child to have better movement in the short term or prevent deformity in the long term?
2. What problem will the orthosis address?
3. What kind of orthosis will work best and what special characteristics will be required to achieve the desired effect?
4. When will the child wear the orthosis? Always? Only when walking?
5. Who is the most qualified person to make the orthosis?
6. What will be the cost and will insurance or the family pay?
Orthoses are always used with other forms of therapy like exercise or functional activities. Research on the effectiveness of orthoses is inconclusive. It is important for the parent and therapist to have clear goals for the use of an orthosis and to monitor the effect the orthosis is having on the child’s movement.
Author: Darlene Sekerak, PT, PhD Contact Information: dsekerak@med.unc.edu
Last Revised: February 18, 2004
Reference:
Selby-Silverstein L. Lower Extremity Orthotic Intervention for the Pediatric Client. Topics in Physical Therapy – Pediatrics. 2001. American Physical Therapy Association. Alexandria, VA, pp. 9-1 to 9-17.
For more information contact the author for a bibliography.

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Objectives
* setelah selesai membaca ini, diharapkan anda bisa mendifinisikan Orthosis
* paham akan dasar-dasar orthotic dan tatabahasa orthitic umum
* paham akan Goal / tujuan orthotic
* membedakan antara jenis2 orthoses
* mampu untuk memilih tipe orthosis

Orthotist
Orthotist adalah Profesional yang spesial dalam design (desain, fabrication (pembuatan, fitting (pemasangan),alignment,adjustment (pengepasan) orthoses

Orthosis
orthosis adalah segala alat yang ditambahkan ke tubuh untuk menstabilkan atau immobilize bagian tubuh, mencegah kecacatan, melindungi dari luka, atau membantu fungsi dari anggota tubuh.

Beberapa Fungsi Orthosis
* memperbaiki atau mengkoreksi alignment anggota tubuh.
* membantu atau mengkontrol pergerakan sendi
* penyangga, maka dari itu mengurangi beban
* pelindung dari gangguan fisik

Orthose Anggota Gerak Bawah
FO foot orthosis
AFO ankle foot orthosis
KO knee orthosis
KAFO knee ankle foot orthosis
HKAFO hip knee ankle foot orthosis
HO hip orthosis



FO (foot orthosis)-

orthose telapak kaki
* ketika telapak kaki tidak bisa diposisikan normal, FO bisa digunakan untuk mengganjal telapak kaki pada kecacatan tetap, FO ini disebut Accommodative FO, yaitu FO yg mengakomodasi kecacatan.
* membantu telapak kaki untuk mencapai posisi Normal (netral), orthosis ini disebut Corrective FO. yaitu FO yang memberi koreksi
* mengurangi beban dari jaringan lunak atau memberikan total contact
* kadang harus dibuat sesuai pasien, atau kadang siap pakai
Foot Orthosis
Heel Pads



UCBL
University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL)
design total contact, terbuat dari plastic
Rigid plastic total contact design
Hind foot / mid foot correction
Heel cup extends proximal to inframalleolar area and distally to the metatarsal heads










AFO (ankle foot orthosis)
orthosis yang paling sering dijumpai
Metal bars
Total Contact
Floor reaction
Unweighting
Immobilizing
kebanyakan FO bisa dgn sendi maupun tanpa sendi

SMO
Supra Maleolar Orthosis
desain Low profile yang sampai diatas mata Kaki
tidak setinggi FO standar dalam hal Trim lines












Metal Bars
sering digunakan dalam kasus yang spesifik, yaitu Post-polio, Neuropathic feet


sumber:kakipalsu.blogspot.com
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06.45 | Author: Nugroho nugie
tes
kami sedang ngetes
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